Why - once we have met our basic needs for food, warmth, and safety - do we work?
There are the usual, default answers.
For Status. Power. In response to a "fight or flight" instinct, hardwired deep in us.
Because when we were young, we saw our parents do it and when we grew up, we wanted to be like them.
What a bunch of hamster on a wheel mumbo-jumbo that makes folks at the end of their life look back and say why did I waste so much of my precious life on that?
Instead, how about this?
Let’s be heroes.
Wikipedia defines a hero as one “who, in the face of danger and adversity or from a position of weakness, displays courage and the will for self-sacrifice…for some greater good of all humanity.”
Now that’s good.
It touches the various dimensions of our being.
Heroism in action is a strong, hard effort - a pushing to the limits of one’s physical endurance.
Heroes are intellectually wise. They are fair, sober, and big, and rarely let anger and fear get the best of them.
And when we are in the presence of a hero, we are spiritually risen up, are we not?
And you know what goes hand-in-hand with heroism?
Hard, honest work - taking great, exquisite care to do things right – is at heroism’s heart.
As is teamwork. And creative work, toward an idealistic end.
As is work on the behalf of the powerless, for and with the young and the old.
As is winning the right way - with grace and with recognition of those that aided in your journey.
And as is trying your absolute hardest and most honest best, and sometimes coming up just a bit short.
Heroic work, in all its forms, is work worth doing.
You know it when you see it. And unfortunately, also when you don’t.
Let’s look for the heroes in our lives - those right around us and those in their blessed multitude in this wide and inter-connected world of ours.
Let’s celebrate them and let’s strive to be like them.
Virtual Reality (VR) is one of the hottest market sectors in the world today, growing from a $90 million business in 2014, to $4.1 billion this year, and then more than doubling to $8.5 billion by 2018 (Goldman Sachs).
Well beyond its “science fiction” roots, virtual reality hardware, software, and applications technologies are transforming industries as diverse as medicine, real estate, entertainment, gaming, and more. And many predict these new technologies will have as profound an impact on personal and business communications and productivity as email, text messaging, and social media.
Webinar Invitation: Entrepreneurial and Investment Opportunities in Virtual Reality
Please click here for a recording of the webinar where I was joined by a select and amazing group of virtual reality entrepreneurs and investors who will share how they and their companies are winning in this incredibly dynamic space.
My panelists included:
On the webinar, they will share:
Who Should Attend
This webinar is designed for two distinct attendee groups:
1) Those connected to the virtual reality industry as entrepreneurs, investors, and technologists.
2) Entrepreneurs and executives intent on learning why and how what is arguably the most important technology revolution happening in the world today will impact and change their businesses.
Please click the link below to listen to a recording of the webinar:
For so many very important reasons - pursuing capital to grow, positioning a business for a sale, recruiting new executive talent - the vast majority of business owners seek to have their companies judged and valued on its future prospects, and not its past results.
The truism of this for any business, and the executives that lead them, should be obvious and freeing.
Obvious in that, of course the past is past, and that concepts of business value are inherently future-focused and determined.
The easiest analogy here is from the world of sports.
Who would be more valuable to a team seeking to win a championship? The 21 year old Chicago Bull rookie Michael Jordan, starting his career with no professional resume or accomplishments, or his 40 year Washington Wizards version, possessive of 6 NBA Finals MVPs, over 30,000 points scored, and universally regarded as the greatest player in basketball history?
Because sports is so visceral, so visual, it is far more obvious than in business to separate and properly rate past performance, and its predictive value for future results.
And this “past is past” motif is freeing, especially as we are confronted with the competitive and technological challenges of our modern, global business marketplace.
Yes, when we are feeling a bit overwhelmed by it all, “past is past” can be a mantra, convincing ourselves that we can manage and lead our businesses to new and better forms and brand positionings, and not just be defined and “boxed’ by what we have done and been before.
And isn’t this, beyond making money (which is so awesome in its own right!), what draws so many of us to the world of business?
To be masters of our own fate, to have and exercise control, to fight through and against, and to win.
But realistically, the past will always be with us, and it especially will rear its confining head when we seek help to grow and change our business in a big way.
It goes like this: A business plan is prepared, outlining the very bright future for our company that we seek to bring to life.
That plan, along with our company’s past financial statements, are reviewed by a prospective investor / partner and the feedback comes back as:
“I love your big vision and ambitious financial goals, and I want to be involved. But, last year your revenues only grew 10% and your net margins were very thin. So yes, your growth and business plans are awesome, but because of your results-to-date I value your business today as being worth....ZERO.
Now let me be crystal clear. The proof, of course, is in the pudding, the overriding purpose of a business always is to make money, and executives either lead their companies to do so or they do not.
The problem is when we hear, in the said and the unsaid, too much of “stop us in our tracks” feedback like the above, and it gets internalized.
And we pull in our sails, if even ever so slightly.
And we lose just a little of our virtue, and start concerning ourselves with what’s in it for ME and not the organization as a whole?
And we start defining, and not informing, ourselves by our past, and get into that rabbit hole dialogue genre of “it hasn't worked before, so it won't work now."
And too many dialogues, internal and external amongst a company's management team, and slowly but surely that company devolves from being one of promise and potential, to one stumbling along in that dreaded land of the walking business dead.
The way to keep this from happening (or if it is happening to your business, to reverse it!), is to come back to our obvious and so freeing first principles.
That the past is past.
That the most important day of our business life is this one, and then the next one, and the next one, and so on and so forth.
And if we feel ourselves being pulled back to the past and slowed and distracted from our future-focused visions and financial goals...
...let’s refocus ourselves on what got us excited to work in business in the first place.
To look forward. To build. To contribute. To fight the good fight every day in every way.
And yes, to break free of the shackles of the past and into that bright future that is our right and destiny as entrepreneurs and executives of ambition.
“Because it’s there. Everest is the highest mountain in the world, and no man has reached its summit. Its existence is a challenge. The answer is instinctive, a part, I suppose, of man’s desire to conquer the universe.”
- George Mallory, English Mountaineer
This past week, I traveled to the island country of St. Kitts and Nevis to visit three amazing executives and entrepreneurs - Messrs. Scott Caines, Errol Douglas, and Denzel Crooke.
These fine gentlemen are spearheading Golden Rock - a real estate development project that will fundamentally transform for the better the lives of the island’s 50,000+ residents, along with those of neighboring islands, including Antigua, Dominica, and Barbados.
The development will be a model of mixed use, combining elements of residential apartments, commercial office space, retail, entertainment, educational, and health. It will be unlike anything ever developed in the Caribbean, and as its vision is brought to full fruition, unlike anything anywhere in the world.
The obstacles to launch and complete a project of this ambition are significant anywhere, but obviously more so in a smaller, tourism-based locale like St. Kitts.
Actually getting it done requires the principals involved to be the polar opposites of dilettantes, possessing of deep, significant financial and technical expertise, underpinned by an inspirational business vision, awesome teamwork and relentless will to win.
Scott Caines, Errol Douglas, and Denzel Crooke are all this and more.
My time with them on their beautiful island was a reset for me, re-grounding me in the truism that of all of the things that serious, talented, decent, and dedicated among us can involve themselves, entrepreneurial, private sector projects are so often the most valuable.
The very smallness of St. Kitts paints this in particularly sharp relief.
Our Golden Rockers, with their remarkable personal and professional biographies, could take on leadership roles at the highest levels of their Island’s government.
Or they could focus full-time on their numerous philanthropic and charitable pursuits.
Or, better yet, they just don’t have to work as hard as they do, and no one on their breathtakingly beautiful Caribbean Island would fault them for it!
But business-building, on this project and others, is where their comparative advantage is greatest and where their impact can be the most profound.
But it goes deeper, more metaphysical than that.
For sure, St. Kitts needs the 1,000 new, private sector jobs the development will create.
And it needs the educational and healthcare and other awesome facilities envisioned as part of its larger development.
And nearby Caribbean islands need the competitive pressure of projects like it to challenge them to “up their game” and not rely on a "beach" and "cruise stop" tourism - based economic model.
But also and oh so importantly our fine friends Messrs. Caines, Douglas, and Crooke need this project because they are cast of the same stuff as George Mallory.
They build, so to say, to put a there there.
Because they can.
And because doing so is the highest expression of their professional muse and entrepreneurial spirit.
And thus, something new, beautiful, and wonderful is brought into the world.
Over the past few weeks, I have had the good fortune to speak to many executives and entrepreneurs about how the “Humans” in their companies grapple with data and information technology to improve critical work processes and business results.
These processes include “New School” ones like formulating, launching, and managing multi-channel digital marketing campaigns - i.e. simultaneously advertising on Google AdWords, Bing, Facebook, and LinkedIn - and then utilizing various forms of re-targeting to ensure the right prospects see the right message at the right time.
And “Old School” ones like tracking and evaluating sales activities and results, how many calls are being made daily, weekly, monthly, and what the results of those calls are – leads, proposals, wins.
And as customers are secured, the operational processes and their related data points – cost and time of delivery, customer satisfaction as measured by retention, upsell, survey, etc., and how employee performance and engagement drives / detracts from these outcomes.
All this “Nitty-Gritty” can and does make the difference between profit and loss, between winning and losing.
The problem is that there is so much of it.
So much data. So many processes. So many new technologies.
And yes, so many opportunities to explore and to pursue.
All of these “so muches” and what do you have?
To which an all too natural response is to comfort ourselves by “staying busy, - with minutiae, with confusing activity and frenzy and response with accomplishment and forward progress.
It goes without saying that in this oh-so-competitive world of ours this is not going to cut it.
So how can we leverage all of the amazing and abundant data surrounding our businesses to empower and improve our workflows and results instead of overwhelming them?
Here are three quick ideas:
First of all, don’t let the Desire for the Perfect get in the way of the Possible. Accept that it is simply not realistic to tackle and leverage data like an Amazon or a Google does (i.e. world class analytics companies).
Businesses like these have large teams of high IQ analysts to parse and interpret their data sets to a degree and depth unavailable to small and medium-sized businesses (SMEs).
But just because we can’t do “Industrial Analytics” doesn’t mean there isn’t big value to be had from a more “entrepreneurial approach”.
In fact, given the sometimes shockingly low level of analytics and data management at most SMEs, even small steps toward making business decisions with a more quantitative basis can yield quick and high ROI.
Secondly, look for and find the Low Hanging Fruit. My experience is that every business has one area, one dimension -- whether it be email marketing, PPC, sales team performance, delivery costs, etc. - that a focused look at its analytics can lead to easy action plans to attain quick wins.
And if you’re not confident / comfortable to make these quick inductive “jumps” yourself, then hire a consultant to do it for you.
Finally, leverage Technology. In the end, the ultimate solution to overcoming data overwhelm is to be found in what causes it in the first place.
Yes, the same technology that on the bad side inundates us with so many pings from everywhere at all times, and on the oh-so-good side opens amazing possibilities for us to sell, market and deliver to customers anywhere in the world…
…that technology in turn, can automate our work processes, data flows, and decision making to free us do those things to which as humans and business executives we are attracted to and designed to do.
Collaborate. Connect. Create. Innovate. Inspire. Like. Love.
All only truly possible from the top and in control of our data mountain.
Yes, we have to do the climbing to get there, but when we do, what is won is the ability to focus on and improve the processes and connect with the people that really matter.
An ongoing entrepreneurial and executive challenge is blocking out all distractions and focusing and executing upon what is important above all else - pursuing opportunities of high value and potential for our companies.
These distractions are of various and nefarious types:
The most successful businesspeople I know fight through these distractions and instead everyday do and focus on that most important thing - winning at business everything else be darned.
For Media Distractions, they insulate themselves as much as possible from the "anxiety-driven" news as is presented on the news networks (Fox, CNN, MSNBC, et al.), and instead nourish their minds and spirits with "business success" - based media like CNBC and Fortune, Entrepreneur, and Inc. Magazines.
Media that focuses on those that are winning at business, how they are doing it, and how they are overcoming strategic and tactical challenges in pursuit of those victories.
For Naysayers Distractions, for that lovely group of “friends” and family who drain our motive force and positive momentum through their negative thoughts and lack of encouragement, well the best businesspeople are just too busy with constructive action, with working on their businesses and themselves to have any time for the sideway glances and half - hearted words and efforts of the “Eyeores” chirping at their heels.
Yes, this may sound harsh, but it is a harshness in service of a greater good:building profitable, high cash flow private sector businesses.
Both because this is what we as businesspeople are uniquely trained, empowered, and positioned to do and because it is what this world of ours (and our Eyeorian friends too!) need so much more of.
For the Distractions of Self-Doubt, of maintaining the enthusiasm, stamina and willingness to make the sacrifices of time, energy, of life force to achieve big business success.
To this I say malarkey!
Pursuing business success is not a burden, but a blessing, one of the miraculous opportunities modern life has to offer, and one that only a very small percentage of humans that have walked the earth have had the privilege to do.
Embrace it, enjoy it. Let’s be happy warriors - businessmen and women that find and relish the fun and excitement that is the game of business.
And as we do, the news of the day magically starts sounding a bit less distressing, the naysayers among us a bit less discouraging, our self-talk more opportunity-focused and yes the hard work we do in and on our businesses starts yielding more and faster results.
Everything else really is malarkey!
A great best practice for all companies of ambition is to establish and hold regular meetings of a well-qualified and experienced Board of Strategic Advisors.
Let’s set aside for now some of the mechanisms of setting up a quality board (of which more can be read about here) and instead focus on some of the “Tough Love” feedback a board can offer executives on what they are doing right…
…and far more importantly what they are doing wrong and how to fix it.
1. That Often It is Better to Receive than to Give: While advisory board members, unlike a formal board, do not have liability nor fiduciary responsibility, their time and energy requirements to participate are significant.
And for most smaller companies, the financial incentives it can offer advisory board members are relatively little compared to the value of a board members’ time.
A good if imperfect analogy is that for many senior executives their involvement with a smaller company advisory board is almost a philanthropic endeavor - where they give of themselves without expectation of direct reward - financial or otherwise.
Correspondingly, the owners and managers of the small company must approach the sage advice and good energy offered by their advisory board fully in “receiving” mode.
For businesspeople of the mindset of always trading value for value and reciprocal obligation, this is hard. But only by clearing this space can the board’s counsel be best received.
And somewhat counter-intuitively, often only by management fully accepting the “gifts” of its advisors will the board member’s experience be richest.
2. Begin with the End in Mind: For companies beyond the startup phase, its operating executives are naturally pulled to the shorter-term challenges and realities - this quarter’s revenue and profits, this month’s sales, the challenges and angst of a difficult employee decision, etc.
In contrast, an advisory board discussion, by both its nature and by the kinds of folks attracted to serve on it, naturally pulls to the long view, to the big questions that all businesses should be regularly asking themselves but rarely do.
Or, as they say, the “Why” and the “Which.”
The Why questions are hopefully embodied in the Company’s mission and its values, and need the regular attention of strategic planning sessions like advisory board meetings to keep them from just existing in “hot air.”
The “Which” questions are in many ways the harder ones that an advisory board dynamic can help address.
You see, ambitious entrepreneurs and executives are naturally drawn to expanding their sense of their market opportunity, and correspondingly their list of product and service offerings.
This can lead to a diffusion of focus, of trying to be all things to all people.
A thoughtful advisory board will challenge management to more clearly define where they are aiming to be 1 year, 3 years hence and beyond, and from this vision where resources and attention should be focused today.
3. Speak Little, Listen Much: Managers and owners of emerging companies are often also the lead salespeople, the lead “evangelists” for their companies.
As a result, their default mode is to always be selling, always be pied-pipering their incredibly bright futures.
But there is often more insight to be gained from Negative Thinking, from grappling with all the things that can go wrong and are difficult / well-nigh impossible to overcome.
Even if, especially if, so doing is buzz-killing and / or depressing.
Why? Because it is often only in this low energy state that a certain kind of reflective creativity can flourish and completely new approaches to solving vexing problems can be discovered.
4. Brevity is Next to Godliness: Strategic planning sessions in a modern business context should be tightly scheduled to last not more than 2 hours. After this length of time, diminishing returns starts setting in fast.
A tight frame also requires all participants to come to the meeting prepared. And, in turn, that the meeting organizers select the right meeting homework and then plan and moderate the agenda with the proper balance of structure and free-flowing dialogue.
Doing all of the above requires work – a good guide is that for every hour of strategic meeting time there should be 5 hours of planning time by the meeting organizer and at least 2 hours of preparation time by each participant.
Conclusion: Given that the only way to increase the value of a business is to either a) increase its bottom line financials and/or b) to improve its strategic positioning and growth probability, creative planning sessions like advisory board meetings should be a FIRST priority of any responsible manager.
They are classic Eisenhowerian, “Non-Urgent and Extremely Important” activities.
Ignore them at your peril, and benefit from them in ways well beyond predictable expectation.
The smartest, most creative, and effective business men and women more often than not can be best described as "Investor – Entrepreneurs,” evaluating and pursuing opportunities through the complementary perspectives of the two mindsets.
As investors, they do so dispassionately - with the lenses of risk and reward, and of expected value.
As entrepreneurs, they are more holistic - knowing that numbers on financial statements are byproducts of collective, human effort - of sales, marketing, and operational strategies and project plans, all underpinned by cultural commitments to excellence and to winning.
Now, when things get dicey is when these Investor - Entrepreneurs don't properly distinguish in their otherwise able minds where investing and entrepreneurship do NOT intersect.
The problem reveals itself in a number of ways.
For the entrepreneur, it is a Cognitive Dissonance, a denial of the simple fact that an incredibly large percentage of their net worth and earnings power is often concentrated in a single, and very high risk asset - i.e. their own business.
For the investor, it is the dark and dangerous side of that usually, admirable human quality of Commitment and Consistency.
This is the tendency we all have to stick to decisions that we have made in the past even if and when the original evidence that underpinned those decisions has changed dramatically.
The classic example of this is basing an investment decision on the original purchase price of an asset, its sunk cost, even though the faulty logic of doing so is almost self-evident.
Yet, following this truism, because of our emotional human wiring, is always far harder to do in practice than in theory.
So, how should - let’s call them “Entrepreneur Mind” and “Investor Mind” - properly work together?
Here are three ideas:
1. For Investors, view with an extremely jaundiced eye records and claims of past performance.
Let's be clear, doing so is extremely hard.
Both because of the aforementioned “human wiring” matter, and because the brokerage and insurance industries have a massive, vested interest in manipulating and exploiting this wiring to prevent us from doing so.
To best resist this manipulation, invest like an entrepreneur - pointed toward the future and leaving the past where it rightfully belongs, in the past.
2. For Entrepreneurs, just for a few moments, step in the space of not believing one’s own “propaganda.”
This too, is hard as of what makes entrepreneurs who they are is their unshakeable and often irrational self-belief, in spite of often much evidence to the contrary.
This self-belief serves them well as leaders and as creators, but as shareholders not so much.
And as shareholders, the irrefutable principles of diversification, of long-term and global planning, and of the overriding importance of small differences in return, multiplied over time, so fundamentally apply.
3. And finally, as Investors - Entrepreneurs, to recognize good professional guidance as a success requirement, for the simple reason that our most dynamic competitors are getting it.
And if you are not, then you are wanting.
And in both investing and entrepreneurship, this wanting, this disadvantage, even if small, multiplied over time is usually the difference between failure and success.
What does this look like in practice?
Well, for one, a best-functioning team of professional advisors should include a great strategy and exit planning advisor, a great accountability coach, and a great wealth manager.
And they should all work together, especially and effectively toward those most appropriate and highest priority goals of all entrepreneurs and of all investors: building assets and earning power.
Both slowly and methodically over time as an investor and in sudden, large, and creative shoots as an entrepreneur.
Over the past few weeks, I have written about the amazing growth and financial progress of Business Intelligence (BI) companies like Domo, Birst, and Looker and how their rise to prominence and value signifies a shift in how we think about the best way to manage and value an enterprise.
I described this shift as "changing the world of business from one done by gut and hand to one done by statistics and evidence," and how this next generation of software companies can "finish the job" of the IT revolution and enable a level of predictability and automation to business and investment processes like never before.
There is one big problem, however.
A problem that threatens the ability of these companies to deliver on the promise of their amazing technologies…
…and along with it any meaningful ROI for their customers.
That problem is people.
You see, the vast majority of us are a combination of unable and unexcited to actually use business intelligence tools and technologies on a regular and consistent basis.
Because doing so is hard.
And harder still when one does not have a rigorous quantitative background in things like statistics, cost accounting, behavioral economics, and managerial finance.
As tough, managing by data requires a lot of “pig-headedness”- not getting distracted by the "noise in the numbers" and a deep humility that when the inevitable conflicts between and our gut and the numbers arise to consistently choose the latter.
None of this sounds like much fun. So we avoid it.
However…let's juxtapose this difficult reality against why so many very smart people and investors are so excited about BI.
Because when Business Intelligence is done right, everyone makes a LOT more money.
A good analogy is eating better and exercising more – we all know it is really good for us but doing it requires education, habits re-training, and consistent, diligent work.
And those most successful at eating great and being in awesome shape usually have coaches – personal trainers, chefs, nutritionists - to help them define goals, put action plans together, and provide ongoing measurements, accountability, and course corrections to achieve success.
And enabling Business Intelligence tools and technologies within organizations is no different.
Luckily, a whole generation of companies have arisen to help companies implement and integrate BI into their management practices and work processes, and to train, teach and coach managers how to use and profit from them.
For sure, some day using BI to drive our daily work and business decision making will become, for most of us, as simple and natural as using a word processor or a spreadsheet.
But that day is a long way off.
And between now and then, the best managers looking to get BI working in their organizations quickly and correctly will hire coaches and consultants to help them.
And the values of the firms that do this work right and truly help managers and companies unlock the huge profit potential of Business Intelligence could someday approach that of the companies that build the software empowering it all.
On this great day when we celebrate America, its freedoms and way of life, please enjoy (and as you are moved share with the hashtag #SpiritofAmerica) this list of thirty - five of why this is the greatest country in the history of the world:
#35. Apple. Google. Facebook. $1.38 Trillion in market value - capitalized here.
#34. YPO. Vistage. FoundersCard. Entrepreneurial Leaders - networking here.
#32. Uber. AirBnB. WeWork. The New Economy - a reality here.
#31. Silicon Valley, Silicon Beach (Los Angeles), Silicon Alley (Manhattan), Silicon Hills (Austin). Technology - leading the world here.
#30. Gettysburg. Guadalcanal. Bunker Hill. Heroes lived here.
#29. Contract Rights. Judges. Juries of One’s Peers. Redress for grievances - practiced here.
#28. Yosemite. The Grand Canyon. Yellowstone. Natural Wonders - in abundance here.
#27. The Interstates. State Highways. County Parkways. The Open Road - Great to be on it here.
#26. Uber. AirBnB. Lending Club. The Economy – Shared Here.
#25. Lexington. Concord. Saratoga. Yorktown – Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness. Fought for here.
#24. The Bill of Rights. The Supreme Court. The Rule of Law. Justice served here.
#23. The Stock Market. Home Ownership. Low Inflation. Assets built here.
#22. Driverless Cars (and Electric too!). Wearable Devices. The Internet of Things. Tomorrow’s Technologies – Imagined Here.
#21. Diamandis. Kurzweil. Saffo. The future - abundant here.
#20. Hollywood. Disney. Broadway. Entertainment happens here.
#19. The World Series, The Super Bowl, The Masters. Sports are spectacle here.
#18. Jesus. Moses. Mohammed. The Buddha. Religion gets along here.
#17. Gates. Jobs. Page. Zuckerberg. BIG stuff - invented here.
#16. Murphy. Martin. Seinfeld. Rock. Life is a laugh here.
#15. Madonna. Mariah. Whitney. Elvis. Michael. Frank. Songs are sung here.
#14. Faulkner. Hemmingway. Roth. Franzen. Stories are told here.
#13. Kaiser. Pfizer. Genentech. Merck. Healing happens here.
#12. Boeing. Caterpiillar. Deere. UPS. FedEx. Stuff gets built here and gets there.
#11. Amazon. eBay. Ecommerce - transacted here.
#10. Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn. Networks - connected here.
#9. Google. Yahoo. Bing. Information - organized and accessible here.
#8. Kleiner. Sequoia. Mayfield. Ideas - backed here.
#7. The Inc. 500. The Fast Company 50. Entrepreneurs - inspired here.
#6. Alaska. Montana. Wyoming. Space - open here.
#5. Chicago. Boston. San Francisco. NYC. Cities pulse here.
#4. Jefferson, Lincoln, and Roosevelt walked the Earth here.
#3. The first guy in charge here voluntarily gave up power, when he could easily have been named ruler for life. Character stands here.
#2. The current guy in charge was born to an immigrant father and a teenage mother who was so poor that she received government assistance in raising her only child. Possibility abounds here.
#1. The Greatest Generation was born here, fought and won there. And then they came home, put their heads down, and built a new America. Civil rights, cities, suburbs, highways, schools, and more.
So on this day especially, we say thank you!
Happy 4th to You and Yours!